defining prevention science advances in prevention science

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Defining Prevention Science

Author : Zili Sloboda
ISBN : 9781489974242
Genre : Medical
File Size : 27. 94 MB
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Whoever coined the adage "an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure" could not have known how important this adage would become. The challenge of altering the health trajectories of poor lifestyle decisions for such behaviors as smoking, drinking and using illicit drugs, violence, dropping out of school, engagement in risky sexual behaviors and crime through prevention research has led to a new discipline, prevention science. Defining Prevention Science covers this emerging field of science: its goals, its conceptual and theoretical foundations, its methods and especially its utility. Not content to simply differentiate the field from its close allies: epidemiology, psychology, neuroscience, sociology, economics, the text explains how these many disciplines enhance each other at both research and intervention levels and how prevention science draws on these biological, behavioral and social sciences to create an innovative knowledge base that has provided cost-effective, evidence-based prevention interventions and policies. To this end, familiar developmental benchmarks are recast in prevention/health promotion context, from the crucial importance of adolescence in encountering and deterring high-risk behaviors to the risks and resiliencies of single-mother families. An international group of contributors offers current findings, up-to-date methods for effective evidence-based interventions and improvements in research technologies in these key areas: Physical, cognitive and emotional vulnerability across the life course. The roles of developmental influences in prevention. Intervention development, delivery and implementation. Bringing the intervention approach to research design. New directions in analytic methods. Cost analysis and policy implications. Advances in Prevention Science: Defining Prevention Science aims to inspire further refinements in the field and encourage communication among researchers in its own and related disciplines, including public health, epidemiology, psychology, and criminology. This is the first volume in the series, Advances in Prevention Science, that provides the framework for other volume that will focus on such issues as: Prevention Science in School Settings: Complex Relationships and Processes; Preventing Crime and Violence and The Prevention of Substance Use.

Preventing Mental Emotional And Behavioral Disorders Among Young People

Author : Institute of Medicine
ISBN : 0309144582
Genre : Medical
File Size : 62. 34 MB
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Mental health and substance use disorders among children, youth, and young adults are major threats to the health and well-being of younger populations which often carryover into adulthood. The costs of treatment for mental health and addictive disorders, which create an enormous burden on the affected individuals, their families, and society, have stimulated increasing interest in prevention practices that can impede the onset or reduce the severity of the disorders. Prevention practices have emerged in a variety of settings, including programs for selected at-risk populations (such as children and youth in the child welfare system), school-based interventions, interventions in primary care settings, and community services designed to address a broad array of mental health needs and populations. Preventing Mental, Emotional, and Behavioral Disorders Among Young People updates a 1994 Institute of Medicine book, Reducing Risks for Mental Disorders, focusing special attention on the research base and program experience with younger populations that have emerged since that time. Researchers, such as those involved in prevention science, mental health, education, substance abuse, juvenile justice, health, child and youth development, as well as policy makers involved in state and local mental health, substance abuse, welfare, education, and justice will depend on this updated information on the status of research and suggested directions for the field of mental health and prevention of disorders.

Comprehensive Community Initiatives For Positive Youth Development

Author : Jonathan F. Zaff
ISBN : 9781317308379
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 76. 71 MB
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While Comprehensive Community Initiatives (CCIs) provide promising avenues to support the positive development of all young people, research findings assessing the relation between CCIs and community-level child and youth outcomes have been mixed. Although there are exceptions, few evaluations on the impact of CCIs on positive youth development have been conducted. In this edited collection, the authors draw on the field of developmental science to provide a basis for why CCIs are a powerful tool for providing all young people with opportunities to thrive. The collection begins with a brief history of CCIs and their impacts to illustrate why a developmental framework is needed, followed by a discussion of the editors’ proposed framework. Each chapter that follows offers some of the most rigorous research and extant knowledge of CCIs. In the final chapter, the editors provide recommendations for future research that can systematically explore the impact of CCIs, better indicating their effectiveness and offering proven strategies that can be implemented in varying contexts. Altogether, this collection offers researchers and practitioners in the field a means by which to better incorporate theory into the vision and practices of CCIs and, as such, the tools to better measure the outcomes of the CCIs.

The Pedagogy Of Real Talk

Author : Paul Hernandez
ISBN : 9781506304977
Genre : Education
File Size : 62. 97 MB
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For students at risk, Real Talk means real results! Developed by a nationally-awarded educator and former at-risk student, Real Talk builds rapport with students while creating learning experiences that are relevant…and life-changing. The results are transformed classroom and school environments, engaged students, and higher achievement. The Pedagogy of Real Talk guides readers through every step of implementation. They will Develop an understanding of the substantive education theories that underlie the Real Talk approach Learn the how-to’s for implementing Real Talk with any group of learners Understand key approaches for training teachers in Real Talk methodology Benefit from case studies and lessons learned

Prevention Science In School Settings

Author : Kris Bosworth
ISBN : 9781493931552
Genre : Medical
File Size : 30. 92 MB
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This straightforward volume makes a strong, practical, research-based case for integrating prevention programs into middle and high schools. Written by experts in prevention science and education, it examines educational goals and prevention of risky behaviors as parallel and complementary processes and provides evidence for health-promoting schools as a critical forum for student development. Chapters show the benefits of this collaboration, as instructors engage with prevention content, prevention scientists study schools and create interventions, and counselors develop and implement activities, resulting in improved academic, social, and health outcomes. Examples of successful prevention strategies address personal and public health issues as varied as substance abuse, dating violence, dropping out, and suicide. Among the topics covered: Engaging school leaders in prevention Developing school-based prevention curricula Scaling up evidence-based prevention interventions and practices Conducting prevention research and evaluation in schools Promoting a positive school climate and culture Reducing disruptive behavior, violence, and bullying Child and school psychologists, administrators, teachers, school counselors, and prevention specialists will find significant common ground in Prevention Science in School Settings. The breadth and depth of coverage point to new, multidisciplinary directions in health education, school climate/culture, and positive youth development.

Prevention Psychology

Author : John L. Romano
ISBN : 1433817918
Genre : Education
File Size : 60. 77 MB
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"Few would argue about the benefits of prevention. We all receive messages daily about the importance of a maintaining a healthy diet and body weight, getting enough sleep, practicing safe sex, avoiding the dangers of tobacco, and using alcohol responsibly, to list just a few. All of these efforts are made to ward off physical and psychological ills and to promote personal well-being by maintaining healthy lifestyles now and in the future. Some people will strictly adhere to prevention and health promotion practices, others will ignore them, and most will attempt to follow some of them with varying degrees of success. Prevention science as a professional specialty has goals similar to those of individual, self-directed efforts to promote health. However, prevention science seeks to prevent psychological and physical ills and promote overall health and well-being through evidence-based practices at individual and systemic levels. Therefore, prevention is important because the professional specialty addresses health promotion at individual levels of intervention, as well as through larger social levels of intervention to improve and strengthen health and well-being across society. Prevention is an interdisciplinary specialty that requires conceptual sophistication, research, and policy actions from multiple disciplines, including psychology, counseling, social work, education, health sciences, economics, and public affairs. Given the major advances in prevention in recent years, a major goal of this book is to present in one volume prevention as a specialty in psychology with applicability to other mental health professions. The book is designed to close a gap in the education and training of students, psychologists, other mental health professionals, and those in other professions who desire increased knowledge and training in prevention. The book is a broad-based and resource-rich introduction to prevention, giving attention to interventions and research in different settings across the life span. The content is appropriate for advanced undergraduate and graduate students desiring an introduction to prevention history, theory, research, and applications, and also for professionals who have received little, if any, education and training in prevention"--Introduction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

Handbook Of Social Influences In School Contexts

Author : Kathryn R. Wentzel
ISBN : 9781317670872
Genre : Education
File Size : 37. 74 MB
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The Handbook of Social Influences in School Contexts draws from a growing body of research on how and why various aspects of social relationships and contexts contribute to children’s social and academic functioning within school settings. Comprised of the latest studies in developmental and educational psychology, this comprehensive volume is perfect for researchers and students of Educational Psychology. Beginning with the theoretical perspectives that guide research on social influences, this book presents foundational research before moving on to chapters on peer influence and teacher influence. Next, the book addresses ways in which the school context can influence school-related outcomes (including peer and teacher-student relationships) with specific attention to research in motivation and cognition. Within the chapters authors not only present current research but also explore best-practices, drawing in examples from the classroom. With chapters from leading experts in the field, The Handbook of Social Influences in School Contexts provides the first complete resource on this topic.

The Structure Of Scientific Revolutions

Author : Thomas S. Kuhn
ISBN : 9780226458144
Genre : Science
File Size : 47. 74 MB
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A good book may have the power to change the way we see the world, but a great book actually becomes part of our daily consciousness, pervading our thinking to the point that we take it for granted, and we forget how provocative and challenging its ideas once were—and still are. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions is that kind of book. When it was first published in 1962, it was a landmark event in the history and philosophy of science. Fifty years later, it still has many lessons to teach. With The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Kuhn challenged long-standing linear notions of scientific progress, arguing that transformative ideas don’t arise from the day-to-day, gradual process of experimentation and data accumulation but that the revolutions in science, those breakthrough moments that disrupt accepted thinking and offer unanticipated ideas, occur outside of “normal science,” as he called it. Though Kuhn was writing when physics ruled the sciences, his ideas on how scientific revolutions bring order to the anomalies that amass over time in research experiments are still instructive in our biotech age. This new edition of Kuhn’s essential work in the history of science includes an insightful introduction by Ian Hacking, which clarifies terms popularized by Kuhn, including paradigm and incommensurability, and applies Kuhn’s ideas to the science of today. Usefully keyed to the separate sections of the book, Hacking’s introduction provides important background information as well as a contemporary context. Newly designed, with an expanded index, this edition will be eagerly welcomed by the next generation of readers seeking to understand the history of our perspectives on science.

Reducing Risks For Mental Disorders

Author : Patricia Beezley Mrazek
ISBN : NAP:13814
Genre : Medical
File Size : 21. 18 MB
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Highlighting opportunities for and barriers to interventions, this book draws on successful models for the prevention of cardiovascular disease, injuries, and smoking. In addition, it reviews the risk factors associated with Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and alcohol abuse and dependence, depressive disorders, and conduct disorders, and evaluates current prevention programs.

Advances In Marine Antifouling Coatings And Technologies

Author : Claire Hellio
ISBN : 9781845696313
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 86. 60 MB
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Marine biofouling can be defined as the undesirable accumulation of microorganisms, algae and animals on structures submerged in seawater. From the dawn of navigation, marine biofouling has been a major problem for shipping in such areas as reduced speed, higher fuel consumption and increased corrosion. It also affects industries using off-shore structures such as oil and gas production and aquaculture. Growing concerns about the environmental impact of antifouling coatings has led to major new research to develop more environmentally-friendly alternatives. Advances in marine antifouling coatings and technologies summaries this wealth of research and its practical implications. This book is divided into four sub-sections which discuss: marine fouling organisms and their impact, testing and development of antifouling coatings, developments in chemically-active marine antifouling technologies, and new surface approaches to the control of marine biofouling. It provides an authoritative overview of the recent advances in understanding the biology of fouling organisms, the latest developments on antifouling screening techniques both in the field and in the laboratory, research on safer active compounds and the progress on nontoxic coatings with tailor-made surface properties. With its distinguished editors and international team of contributors, Advances in marine antifouling coatings and technologies is a standard reference for manufacturers of marine antifouling solutions, the shipping industry, oil and gas producers, aquaculture and other industries using offshore structures, and academics researching this important area. Assesses marine antifouling organisms and their impact, including a historical review and directions for future research Discusses developments in antifouling coatings examining chemically-active and new surface approaches Reviews the environmentally friendly alternative of safer active compounds and the progress of non-toxic compounds

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