killing neighbors webs of violence in rwanda

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Killing Neighbors

Author : Lee Ann Fujii
ISBN : 9780801457371
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 66. 45 MB
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In the horrific events of the mid-1990s in Rwanda, tens of thousands of Hutu killed their Tutsi friends, neighbors, even family members. That ghastly violence has overshadowed a fact almost as noteworthy: that hundreds of thousands of Hutu killed no one. In a transformative revisiting of the motives behind and specific contexts surrounding the Rwandan genocide, Lee Ann Fujii focuses on individual actions rather than sweeping categories. Fujii argues that ethnic hatred and fear do not satisfactorily explain the mobilization of Rwandans one against another. Fujii's extensive interviews in Rwandan prisons and two rural communities form the basis for her claim that mass participation in the genocide was not the result of ethnic antagonisms. Rather, the social context of action was critical. Strong group dynamics and established local ties shaped patterns of recruitment for and participation in the genocide. This web of social interactions bound people to power holders and killing groups. People joined and continued to participate in the genocide over time, Fujii shows, because killing in large groups conferred identity on those who acted destructively. The perpetrators of the genocide produced new groups centered on destroying prior bonds by killing kith and kin.

Killing Neighbors

Author : Lee Ann Fujii
ISBN : 9780801447051
Genre : History
File Size : 61. 44 MB
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"Fujii makes a much-needed contribution both to the field of Rwandan studies and of genocide studies, substituting data for ideology and local voices for political tracts."—David Newbury, Smith College

Killing Neighbors Social Dimensions Of Genocide In Rwanda

Author : Lee Ann Fujii
ISBN : 0542835002
Genre : Ethnic conflict
File Size : 67. 60 MB
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What turns neighbors into genocidaires? The study examines this question in the context of the Rwandan genocide. In the spring of 1994, thousands of ordinary Hutu peasants helped to slaughter over half a million people, mostly Tutsi, in less than one hundred days. The study's findings, based on multiple, intensive interviews conducted in two rural communities and prisons, challenge scholarship that points to ethnic hatreds or ethnic fears as driving popular participation in mass violence. The study argues instead that ethnicity operated as a dramatic blueprint or script for violence. What mediated between the script for genocide and people's actual performances were local ties and powerful group dynamics. Local ties shaped patterns of recruitment and participation. Local powerholders and their collaborators targeted family members first, recruiting them into the killing groups or denouncing them for personal gain. Ties of friendship, meanwhile, led the lowest-level participants, a group I call "Joiners," to protect their Tutsi friends at times, even as they continued to participate in the murder of other Tutsi. By contrast, ties between Joiners helped to initiate these actors into genocide through group activities that became progressively more violent. Joiners continued their participation over time because killing in groups conferred powerful group identity on these actors. In groups, Joiners engaged not only in the physical murder of victims, but also a host of accompanying acts, such as chanting political party slogans, digging holes, standing watch, and watching others kill. Engaging in these acts constituted the group as a social actor with its own identity; once constituted, the group re-enacted the practices consistent with its identity. To adapt Charles Tilly's argument with respect to European state formation---that wars make states and states make war---this study argues that killing produced groups and groups produced killings.

Remaking Rwanda

Author : Scott Straus
ISBN : 9780299282639
Genre : History
File Size : 54. 60 MB
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In the mid-1990s, civil war and genocide ravaged Rwanda. Since then, the country’s new leadership has undertaken a highly ambitious effort to refashion Rwanda’s politics, economy, and society, and the country’s accomplishments have garnered widespread praise. Remaking Rwanda is the first book to examine Rwanda’s remarkable post-genocide recovery in a comprehensive and critical fashion. By paying close attention to memory politics, human rights, justice, foreign relations, land use, education, and other key social institutions and practices, this volume raises serious concerns about the depth and durability of the country’s reconstruction. Edited by Scott Straus and Lars Waldorf, Remaking Rwanda brings together experienced scholars and human rights professionals to offer a nuanced, historically informed picture of post-genocide Rwanda—one that reveals powerful continuities with the nation’s past and raises profound questions about its future. Best Special Interest Books, selected by the American Association of School Librarians Best Special Interest Books, selected by the Public Library Reviewers

Whispering Truth To Power

Author : Susan Thomson
ISBN : 9780299296735
Genre : History
File Size : 35. 79 MB
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For 100 days in 1994, genocide engulfed Rwanda. Since then, many in the international community have praised the country's postgenocide government for its efforts to foster national unity and reconciliation by downplaying ethnic differences and promoting "one Rwanda for all Rwandans." Examining how ordinary rural Rwandans experience and view these policies, Whispering Truth to Power challenges the conventional wisdom on postgenocide Rwanda. Susan Thomson finds that many of Rwanda's poorest citizens distrust the local officials charged with implementing the state program and believe that it ignores the deepest problems of the countryside: lack of land, jobs, and a voice in policies that affect lives and livelihoods. Based on interviews with dozens of Rwandan peasants and government officials, this book reveals how the nation's disenfranchised poor have been engaging in everyday resistance, cautiously and carefully—"whispering" their truth to the powers that be. This quiet opposition, Thomson argues, suggests that some of the nation's most celebrated postgenocide policies have failed to garner the grassroots support needed to sustain peace. Outstanding Academic Title, Choice Magazine

When Victims Become Killers

Author : Mahmood Mamdani
ISBN : 0691102805
Genre : History
File Size : 45. 27 MB
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"When we captured Kigali, we thought we would face criminals in the state; instead, we faced a criminal population." So a political commissar in the Rwanda Patriotic Front reflected after the 1994 massacre of as many as one million Tutsis in Rwanda. Underlying his statement is the realization that, though ordered by a minority of state functionaries, the slaughter was performed by hundreds of thousands of ordinary citizens, including even judges, human rights activists, and doctors, nurses, priests, friends, and spouses of the victims. Indeed, it is its very popularity that makes the Rwandan genocide so unthinkable. This book makes it thinkable. Rejecting easy explanations of the genocide as a mysterious evil force that was bizarrely unleashed, one of Africa's best-known intellectuals situates the tragedy in its proper context. He coaxes to the surface the historical, geographical, and political forces that made it possible for so many Hutu to turn so brutally on their neighbors. He finds answers in the nature of political identities generated during colonialism, in the failures of the nationalist revolution to transcend these identities, and in regional demographic and political currents that reach well beyond Rwanda. In so doing, Mahmood Mamdani usefully broadens understandings of citizenship and political identity in postcolonial Africa. There have been few attempts to explain the Rwandan horror, and none has succeeded so well as this one. Mamdani's analysis provides a solid foundation for future studies of the massacre. Even more important, his answers point a way out of crisis: a direction for reforming political identity in central Africa and preventing future tragedies.

The Order Of Genocide

Author : Scott Straus
ISBN : 0801474922
Genre : History
File Size : 38. 2 MB
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The Rwandan genocide has become a touchstone for debates about the causes of mass violence and the responsibilities of the international community. Yet a number of key questions about this tragedy remain unanswered: How did the violence spread from community to community and so rapidly engulf the nation? Why did individuals make decisions that led them to take up machetes against their neighbors? And what was the logic that drove the campaign of extermination? According to Scott Straus, a social scientist and former journalist in East Africa for several years (who received a Pulitzer Prize nomination for his reporting for the Houston Chronicle), many of the widely held beliefs about the causes and course of genocide in Rwanda are incomplete. They focus largely on the actions of the ruling elite or the inaction of the international community. Considerably less is known about how and why elite decisions became widespread exterminatory violence. Challenging the prevailing wisdom, Straus provides substantial new evidence about local patterns of violence, using original research-including the most comprehensive surveys yet undertaken among convicted perpetrators-to assess competing theories about the causes and dynamics of the genocide. Current interpretations stress three main causes for the genocide: ethnic identity, ideology, and mass-media indoctrination (in particular the influence of hate radio). Straus's research does not deny the importance of ethnicity, but he finds that it operated more as a background condition. Instead, Straus emphasizes fear and intra-ethnic intimidation as the primary drivers of the violence. A defensive civil war and the assassination of a president created a feeling of acute insecurity. Rwanda's unusually effective state was also central, as was the country's geography and population density, which limited the number of exit options for both victims and perpetrators. In conclusion, Straus steps back from the particulars of the Rwandan genocide to offer a new, dynamic model for understanding other instances of genocide in recent history-the Holocaust, Armenia, Cambodia, the Balkans-and assessing the future likelihood of such events.

The Media And The Rwanda Genocide

Author : Allan Thompson
ISBN : 9780745326252
Genre : History
File Size : 61. 35 MB
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The news media played a crucial role in the 1994 Rwanda genocide. Local media fueled the killings, while international media either ignored or seriously misunderstood what was happening. This is the first book to explore both sides of the media equation. Examining how local radio was used as a tool of hate, encouraging neighbors to turn against each other, the book also presents a critique of international media coverage. Bringing together local reporters, high-profile Western journalists, and leading media theorists, this is the only book to identify the extent of the media's accountability. It also examines deliberations by the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda on the role of the media in the genocide. This book is a startling record of the negative influence that the media can have. The authors put forward suggestions for the future, outlining how we can avoid censorship and propaganda and they argue for a new responsibility in media reporting.

Christianity And Genocide In Rwanda

Author : Timothy Longman
ISBN : 9780521191395
Genre : History
File Size : 56. 48 MB
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This book studies the role of Christian churches in the 1994 Rwandan genocide. Timothy Longman's research shows that Rwandan churches have consistently allied themselves with the state and engaged in ethnic politics, making them a center of struggle over power and resources. He argues that the genocide in Rwanda was a conservative response to progressive forces that were attempting to democratize Christian churches.

The Key To My Neighbor S House

Author : Elizabeth Neuffer
ISBN : 0312302827
Genre : History
File Size : 76. 99 MB
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Looks at justice, revenge, and the erosion of a nation's social and political environment in the aftermath of genocide in Bosnia and Rwanda.

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