microsoft secrets how the worlds most powerful software company creates technology shapes markets and manages people

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Microsoft Secrets

Author : Michael A. Cusumano
ISBN : 0028740483
Genre : Computer software industry
File Size : 24. 79 MB
Format : PDF
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Drawing on observation, interviews, and confidential data, the authors reveal Microsoft's product development, marketing, and organizational strategies

Microsoft Secrets

Author : Michael A. Cusumano
ISBN : 9780684855318
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 79. 46 MB
Format : PDF
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The authors reveal Microsoft's product development, marketing, and organizational strategies

The Business Of Software

Author : Michael A. Cusumano
ISBN : 074321580X
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 35. 35 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
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The co-author of Microsoft Secrets links issues related to strategy and organization to those of managing technology, arguing that companies must chose a business model that will capitalize on good times and survive more difficult periods, and presenting the success stories of such companies as IBM, Toshiba, and Motorola. 25,000 first printing.

Software Engineering

Author : Richard W. Selby
ISBN : 9780470148730
Genre : Computers
File Size : 81. 65 MB
Format : PDF, ePub
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This is the most authoritative archive of Barry Boehm′s contributions to software engineering. Featuring 42 reprinted articles, along with an introduction and chapter summaries to provide context, it serves as a "how–to" reference manual for software engineering best practices. It provides convenient access to Boehm′s landmark work on product development and management processes. The book concludes with an insightful look to the future by Dr. Boehm.

Platform Leadership

Author : Annabelle Gawer
ISBN : 1578515149
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 23. 66 MB
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It is the fundamental challenge of the high-tech sector: A firm must innovate internally to succeed-yet its success may equally depend on corresponding innovations byexternalfirms. Whether a company develops a ubiquitous operating system or the software that runs on it, a VCR or the movies we play on it, every participant in a high-tech network is vulnerable to the innovative moves of its partners and competitors. Yet, in spite of this perilous situation, some firms have developed strategies that have made them industry powerhouses and world-class innovators. How? By becomingplatform leaders-companies that provide the technological foundation on which other products, services, and systems are built. Platform leadership is the Holy Grail of high-tech industries, but it is difficult to achieve. InPlatform Leadership, high-tech strategy experts Annabelle Gawer and Michael A. Cusumano reveal how Intel, Microsoft, and Cisco, as well as companies including Palm and NTT DoCoMo, have orchestrated industry innovations to support their products-and, in the process, established dominant market positions. Based on these in-depth case studies and on incisive analysis, the authors present their Four Levers Framework for designing and implementing a successful platform strategy-or for improving an existing strategy: 1.Determine the scope of the firm: Is it preferable to create product complements internally or let the "market" produce them? 2.Design product technology strategically: What degree of modularity is appropriate? Should product interfaces be open or closed? What information should leaders disclose to outside firms? 3.Shape relationships with external complementors: How can the company balance competition and collaboration with outside players? 4.Optimize internal organizational structures: What processes and systems will allow the company to manage internal and external conflicts of interest most effectively? For executives, strategists, and entrepreneurs in many high-tech arenas, this book shows how firms can orchestrate innovation to ensure their own competitive futures-and drive the evolution of their industry. AUTHORBIO:Annabelle Gaweris Assistant Professor of Strategy and Management at INSEAD.Michael A. Cusumanois the Sloan Management Review Professor of Management at the MIT Sloan School, editor-in-chief and chairman of the board of theSloan Management Review, and coauthor of the bestsellerMicrosoft Secrets.

Creativity Inc

Author : Jeff Mauzy
ISBN : 1578512077
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 27. 60 MB
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Introduction To survive and prosper in the long term, people in companies need to create and innovate. And they need to do so as regularly and reliably as they breathe. We begin our discussion of the need for creativity with a look at a successful company that recognized and met a serious new challenge by installing effective creative practices. In the late 1980s, Steelcase Inc., one of the largest U.S. manufacturers of office furniture, like its competitors was investing heavily in research and development in the hot area of its business, modular furniture units.1 "We had all evolved to the same perspective," says Mark Greiner, senior vice president of R&D at Steelcase. "There was an accepted framework in the industry, defined by three points on a triangle: high design, low cost, and customer relationship." Furniture companies had been differentiating themselves along the points of that triangle for some time. Steelcase was proudest of its customer relationships and placed most of its emphasis on maintaining that edge. "But in fact," Greiner says, "all the manufacturers, by watching each other, had gravitated over time toward safer and safer ground in the middle of the triangle defined by those three points." Thus, the differences between Steelcase and its rivals had grown almost nonexistent. "We were supposedly the most advanced office furniture company in the world, but in fact we were looking pretty much like our competition," he says. Worse, the customer was in motion. The exciting technological liberties of computing and communications made office design and furniture seem less urgent, even less relevant to some businesses. This realization didn't come suddenly, says Greiner. "But it started creeping more often into our conversations. Where's the difference? What's our value?" While the industry focused on a familiar, well-understood, highly defined world, the real world was changing. Steelcase needed to break free of many long-held beliefs about customer needs, beliefs that had become invalid. To reconnect with office furniture buyers, the company needed new ideas. Steelcase in the late 1980s qualified as a candidate for creativity and innovation, and through the course of the book, we'll follow the Steelcase story. But the Steelcase story is not unique. Corporate leaders in almost any business today need to know the fundamental elements for initiating and sustaining creativity and innovation. And they must understand the ways in which those elements work together. The speed of change in the economy has long since penalized companies and industries that try to coast with scattershot innovation or a single moment of creative serendipity. It now punishes even strategically astute companies that make serious but only sporadic, isolated, or conventional efforts at creativity and innovation. In the 1870s, Aaron Ward targeted quality-and-value-starved rural shoppers with a single-page, cash-only price list mailed to National Grange members. There was enough creativity and innovation in that business plan to start Montgomery Ward on a 125-year run. The only further innovation of any scope, however, was to build out stores across the country, a strategy that within a few decades caused the company to fall so far behind the pace of change in contemporary imagination and desires that customers stayed away. Still, 125 years is a good ride. Increasingly, the time period that an innovation can last is far shorter. Look at the home audio music business. The music box controlled that market for 100 years. The phonograph controlled the market for 70 years. Cassette tapes dominated for 25 years until the arrival of CDs. Now, after 10 years, CDs compete with mini-disks, DVDs, MP3, and the Internet. And, as if the inexorable compounding in the rate of technological change weren't sufficiently uncomfortable, consider Digital Equipment Corporation and Wang. In 1985, the two pioneering computer companies were at the top of their business and successfully defending their competitive advantages by locking in corporate customers with exclusive networks of proprietary machinery and software. Within a decade both companies were as good as gone, victims of a home computing and open architecture evolution that bypassed their proprietary protections. Not only, then, does competitive advantage have a time limit, a limit shrinking before the accelerating pace of technological change, but resources given to protecting today's competitive advantage can distract companies from keeping an eye on the creative work of developing and deploying the innovations that could drive tomorrow's business. Harvard Business School professor Rosabeth Moss Kanter draws an analogy between doing business now and playing croquet beside Alice in Wonderland, with the mallets, balls, wickets, and stakes all alive and all whimsically free to decide when and how they want to move. And Dartmouth business professor Richard D'Aveni says that relying too long on a competitive advantage is like "shoveling sand against the tide." The message in all this, as Steelcase found out, is that tomorrow, with all its surprises, comes more relentlessly and more quickly than ever before. To respond to and take advantage of the surprises, individuals and companies will want to be as ready as possible. And readiness requires creativity. We contend that the successful companies will have established constant, systemic creativity. They'll do so to fuel the moment-to-moment innovative responses a high-speed marketplace demands. They'll do so to maintain imaginative resources that can project operations into a future that will change even faster than the present. They'll do so to develop, in our here-and-gone business environment, the reliably pliable foundations from which breakthrough innovations can be launched. Companies will strive to become systemically creative because creativity pays. It pays financially and it provides a rich array of other rewards: employee and customer satisfaction, incremental growth, the flexibility to match relentless change, the ability to attract good talent, elevated market interest, and strengthened competitive readiness. The rewards of some of the creativity programs that we explore in the book are illustrative: Early into a creativity change program, APL/NOL, a major ocean shipping company, has measured an impact of $46.6 million from cost reduction and avoidance, revenue increase, and improved asset management. Tufts Health Care, now the second-largest HMO in New England, reached its goal of one million members two years ahead of schedule, tripling its membership in five years. Since then it has launched eleven significant new products or services and won four innovation awards. In 1999 Newsweek ranked THCP second among U.S. managed care plans across all categories surveyed. And CareData, the health-care division of J.D. Power, has rated THCP the best overall HMO in metropolitan Boston every year since 1996. Snack-food giant Frito-Lay attributed more than $100 million in cost reductions to creativity training sessions for employees. Medical equipment maker Guidant leaped onto Fortune's list of the top 100 companies to work for, coming in thirty-first in its first try. The diversified technology company 3M, aggressively pursuing innovation, estimates that it has generated more than $4 billion from new product introductions for each of the last four years. People under the leadership and creativity support of Peter McGhee, vice president of national programming at WGBH, a public broadcasting company in Boston, have earned it more than fifty Emmy awards, thirty-seven Peabody awards for broadcast excellence, and twenty-five duPont-Columbia journalism awards. Sysco Corporation, a $23 billion food distributor, reports that employees who participated in creativity training increased their sales an average 25 percent to 30 percent. With the addition of Islands of Adventure, attendance at Universal Studios' two Florida theme parks climbed 11 percent between 2000 and 2001, while crowds at Disney's four Florida parks dropped 6 percent. In its first year, Steelcase's Leap chair, born from the company's new direction and magnified focus on the user, became one of the top-selling chairs in the world. InCreativity, Inc., our goal is to enhance a company's ability to create and innovate-reliably, systemically, without stop. We start with six essential understandings that weave through the book and the creative process. There is no recipe for systemic creativity.There is no fixed recipe for all or even most companies. The field of systemic creativity and innovation is still so immature that there are none of the requisite benchmarks needed for universal recipes. In fact, our experience suggests that while more specific guidelines will evolve, a more complete and replicable formula for creative success will be elusive for quite some time. So, instead of a recipe, Creativity, Inc. provides the foundational principles and practices a company needs to build the framework that's right for itself. Creativity and innovation are two distinct concepts.Although people often use the terms interchangeably, creativity and innovation differ from one another. Each demands different treatment, and each has a different science. To paraphrase Harvard Business School's Teresa Amabile, a leading researcher in the field, creativity is the generation of novel and appropriate ideas.5 Innovation, as we define it, implements those ideas and thereby changes the order of things in the world. Creativity is about breaking down prior assumptions and making new connections for new ideas. Innovation means taking new ideas and turning them into corporate and marketplace reality. True innovation, as opposed to low-level refinement, takes extended creative effort, yet much of the innovation effort lends itself to direction and organizing. It's much harder to organize, direct, and command the creation of first ideas; you have to encourage and tease out creativity individual by individual. Both creativity and innovation need to be nurtured at every level and function for a corporation to become systemically creative. Creativity happens with individuals, coalitions and teams, and organizations.Systemic creativity, sustained creativity throughout a company, has three operating arenas: individual creativity, the creativity practiced by coalitions and teams, and the support that organizations give to each. Once individuals have a clear sense of their own creativity wellspring, they can revitalize creativity in themselves and in the people around them. Creativity for coalitions and teams begins with the fragile process of moving from creativity to innovation. Finally, for success, a company needs to prepare itself to provide the resources, the strategy, and the climate that encourage both individuals and groups to perform at their creative best. Only with the grasp of and the practice in all three of these arenas is it possible to think and operate creatively on a full corporate scale. There are four critical dynamics.Underlying creativity are four linked, interacting dynamics: motivation, curiosity and fear, the breaking and making of connections, and evaluation. Fluency in these dynamics will guide individuals and companies in reclaiming, using, and polishing creativity and innovation. Ultimately, these four dynamics are the heartbeat of systemic creativity. Creativity depends on climate.Climate has an overwhelming influence on the success of creativity. Creativity does not occur in a vacuum; it needs a sympathetic environment. Individuals need to build a climate to nourish and protect their own creativity from the indifference or hostility of the larger climate. Companies need to transform the larger climate into one that actively supports creativity throughout the organization. Systemic creativity asks everyone to be a leader.Each person in a company has the potential for leadership in creativity. With systemic creativity, there are no artificial designations between "creative" people and "everyone else." Everyone can be creative. Everyone is responsible for sparking ideas and shepherding them into useful innovation. A receptionist, no less than a corporate manager, can observe an unhappy customer, create an idea to correct the situation, and work to make the idea happen. Anyone who takes this initiative leads. Creativity, Inc.divides the exploration of its themes into three parts: Part I, Creative Thinking; part II, Climate; and part III, Action. The first six chapters, parts I and II, cover building capability for creative thought. The final three chapters, part III, put creativity to purposeful work. Part I, Creative Thinking, addresses the dynamics of personal, team, and corporate creativity. How does individual creativity work, what gets in the way of it, and how can one reinvigorate it? And group creativity-how does creativity work on an enterprise scale, so that everyone in the organization can give his or her creative best and boost company performance? Part II, Climate, discusses creativity and its environment. The degree to which people and companies benefit from creativity depends on the degree to which a company provides a climate sympathetic to the dynamics of the creative process. This section discusses creative climates and how to nourish them for individuals and for companies. Part III, Action, presents a guide and examples for purposeful, focused innovation. It explores the demands and possibilities of business leaders who aspire to systemic creativity and discusses the constant call to sustain and reinvent creative initiative.

Open Source

Author : Moreno Muffatto
ISBN : 9781908979803
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 78. 42 MB
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In recent years, the way open source software is developed has taken hold as a valid alternative to commercial proprietary methods, as have the products themselves, e.g., the Linux operating system, Apache web-server software, and Mozilla Firefox browser. But what is open source software? How is the open source community organized? What makes this new model successful? What effects has it had and might it have on the future of the IT industry, companies and government policies? These and many other questions are answered in this book. The first chapter gives a brief history of the open source community and the second chapter takes a close look at the relationship between intellectual property rights and software, both open source and proprietary. The next three chapters consider the who, the open source community, the how, software development both within and outside the community, and the what, open source projects and product quality. Chapters 6 and 7 focus on the different users of open source software: companies and governments respectively. These are followed by two chapters that interpret the phenomenon, first from an organizational point of view in Chapter 8 and then using the theory of complex adaptive systems in Chapter 9. The last chapter explores the current and potential applications of the concept underlying open source software in other fields. Contents: History of Open SourceSoftware and Intellectual Property RightsThe Organization of the Open Source CommunitySoftware Development ModelsOpen Source Products and Software QualityStrategies and Business ModelsGovernment Policies Towards Open Source SoftwareNew Trends in Work OrganizationOpen Source as a Complex Adaptive SystemDevelopments Readership: Postgraduate students, academicians and practitioners in the field of technology management. Keywords:Open Source;Intellectual Property Rights;Virtual Communities;Software Development Models;New Business Models;Complex Adaptive Systems;Government Policy for Software;Open Content;Peer ProductionKey Features:Wide appealMultiple perspective approach to a phenomenon that is in fast, consistent evolution and closer to people's everyday lives than many might thinkComplex subject matters “made easy”, i.e., explained in a clear, concise manner

Software Project Survival Guide

Author : Steve McConnell
ISBN : 9780735637382
Genre : Computers
File Size : 61. 62 MB
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Equip yourself with SOFTWARE PROJECT SURVIVAL GUIDE. It's for everyone with a stake in the outcome of a development project--and especially for those without formal software project management training. That includes top managers, executives, clients, investors, end-user representatives, project managers, and technical leads. Here you'll find guidance from the acclaimed author of the classics CODE COMPLETE and RAPID DEVELOPMENT. Steve McConnell draws on solid research and a career's worth of hard-won experience to map the surest path to your goal--what he calls "one specific approach to software development that works pretty well most of the time for most projects." Nineteen chapters in four sections cover the concepts and strategies you need for mastering the development process, including planning, design, management, quality assurance, testing, and archiving. For newcomers and seasoned project managers alike, SOFTWARE PROJECT SURVIVAL GUIDE draws on a vast store of techniques to create an elegantly simplified and reliable framework for project management success. So don't worry about wandering among complex sets of project management techniques that require years to sort out and master. SOFTWARE PROJECT SURVIVAL GUIDE goes straight to the heart of the matter to help your projects succeed. And that makes it a required addition to every professional's bookshelf.

Business Environment In A Global Context

Author : Andrew Harrison
ISBN : 9780199672585
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 86. 10 MB
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Business Environment in a Global Context offers, in a readily accessible way, an in-depth analysis of the business environment at regional, national, and international levels. Incorporating case studies throughout, the key issues, concepts, and theories are supported by practical examples from the business world.

The Rate And Direction Of Inventive Activity Revisited

Author : Josh Lerner
ISBN : 9780226473031
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 82. 19 MB
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While the importance of innovation to economic development is widely understood, the conditions conducive to it remain the focus of much attention. This volume offers new contributions to fundamental questions relating to the economics of innovation and technological change. Central to the development of new technologies are institutional environments, and among the topics discussed are the roles played by universities and other nonprofit research institutions and the ways in which the allocation of funds between the public and private sectors affects innovation. Other essays examine the practice of open research and how the diffusion of information technology influences knowledge accumulation.

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