the social roots of risk producing disasters promoting resilience high reliability and crisis management

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The Social Roots Of Risk

Author : Kathleen Tierney
ISBN : 9780804791403
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 36. 18 MB
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The first decade of the 21st century saw a remarkable number of large-scale disasters. Earthquakes in Haiti and Sumatra underscored the serious economic consequences that catastrophic events can have on developing countries, while 9/11 and Hurricane Katrina showed that first world nations remain vulnerable. The Social Roots of Risk argues against the widespread notion that cataclysmic occurrences are singular events, driven by forces beyond our control. Instead, Kathleen Tierney contends that disasters of all types—be they natural, technological, or economic—are rooted in common social and institutional sources. Put another way, risks and disasters are produced by the social order itself—by governing bodies, organizations, and groups that push for economic growth, oppose risk-reducing regulation, and escape responsibility for tremendous losses when they occur. Considering a wide range of historical and looming events—from a potential mega-earthquake in Tokyo that would cause devastation far greater than what we saw in 2011, to BP's accident history prior to the 2010 blowout—Tierney illustrates trends in our behavior, connecting what seem like one-off events to illuminate historical patterns. Like risk, human resilience also emerges from the social order, and this book makes a powerful case that we already have a significant capacity to reduce the losses that disasters produce. A provocative rethinking of the way that we approach and remedy disasters, The Social Roots of Risk leaves readers with a better understanding of how our own actions make us vulnerable to the next big crisis—and what we can do to prevent it.

Leadership Dispatches

Author : Michael Useem
ISBN : 9780804794497
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 62. 39 MB
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On February 27, 2010, Chile was rocked by a violent earthquake five hundred times more powerful than the one that hit Haiti just six weeks prior. The Chilean earthquake devastated schools, hospitals, roads, and homes, paralyzing the country for weeks and causing economic damage that was equal to 18 percent of Chile's GDP. This calamity hit just as an incumbent political regime was packing its bags and a new administration was preparing to take office. For most countries, it would have taken years, if not decades, to recover from such an event. Yet, only one year later, Chile's economy had reached a six percent annual growth rate. In Leadership Dispatches, Michael Useem, Howard Kunreuther, and Erwann Michel-Kerjan look at how the nation's leaders—in government, business, religion, academia, and beyond—facilitated Chile's recovery. They attribute Chile's remarkable comeback to a two-part formula consisting of strong national leadership on the one hand, and deeply rooted institutional practices on the other. Coupled with strategic, deliberative thinking, these levers enabled Chile to bounce back quickly and exceed its prior national performance. The authors make the case that the Chilean story contains lessons for a broad range of organizations and governments the world over. Large-scale catastrophes of many kinds—from technological meltdowns to disease pandemics—have been on the rise in recent years. Now is the time to seek ideas and guidance from other leaders who have triumphed in the wake of a disaster. In this vein, Leadership Dispatches is both a remarkable story of resilience and an instructive look at how those with the greatest responsibility for a country, company, or community should lead.

Foundations Of Homeland Security

Author : Martin J. Alperen
ISBN : 9781119289135
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 57. 13 MB
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Community At Risk

Author : Thomas Beamish
ISBN : 9780804794657
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 31. 57 MB
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In 2001, following the events of September 11 and the Anthrax attacks, the United States government began an aggressive campaign to secure the nation against biological catastrophe. Its agenda included building National Biocontainment Laboratories (NBLs), secure facilities intended for research on biodefense applications, at participating universities around the country. In Community at Risk, Thomas D. Beamish examines the civic response to local universities' plans to develop NBLs in three communities: Roxbury, MA; Davis, CA; and Galveston, TX. At a time when the country's anxiety over its security had peaked, reactions to the biolabs ranged from vocal public opposition to acceptance and embrace. He argues that these divergent responses can be accounted for by the civic conventions, relations, and virtues specific to each locale. Together, these elements clustered, providing a foundation for public dialogue. In contrast to conventional micro- and macro-level accounts of how risk is perceived and managed, Beamish's analysis of each case reveals the pivotal role played by meso-level contexts and political dynamics. Community at Risk provides a new framework for understanding risk disputes and their prevalence in American civic life.

Reliability And Risk

Author : Paul Schulman
ISBN : 9780804793933
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 32. 94 MB
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"Reliability and Risk" introduces a landmark framework for better analyzing and managing reliability and risk across our most vital critical infrastructuresfrom electricity and natural gas, to telecommunications, transportation, and water sources. To illustrate their approach in action, Paul R. Schulman and Emery Roe draw on a multi-year case study of one of the world's most important "infrastructure crossroads," the San Francisco Bay-Delta."

Building Resilience

Author : Daniel P. Aldrich
ISBN : 9780226012896
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 50. 20 MB
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Each year, natural disasters threaten the strength and stability of communities worldwide. Yet responses to the challenges of recovery vary greatly and in ways that aren’t explained by the magnitude of the catastrophe or the amount of aid provided by national governments or the international community. The difference between resilience and disrepair, as Daniel P. Aldrich shows, lies in the depth of communities’ social capital. Building Resilience highlights the critical role of social capital in the ability of a community to withstand disaster and rebuild both the infrastructure and the ties that are at the foundation of any community. Aldrich examines the post-disaster responses of four distinct communities—Tokyo following the 1923 earthquake, Kobe after the 1995 earthquake, Tamil Nadu after the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, and New Orleans post-Katrina—and finds that those with robust social networks were better able to coordinate recovery. In addition to quickly disseminating information and financial and physical assistance, communities with an abundance of social capital were able to minimize the migration of people and valuable resources out of the area. With governments increasingly overstretched and natural disasters likely to increase in frequency and intensity, a thorough understanding of what contributes to efficient reconstruction is more important than ever. Building Resilience underscores a critical component of an effective response.

The Resilience Dividend

Author : Judith Rodin
ISBN : 9781782831112
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 45. 53 MB
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New York. Athens. Wenzhou. Boston. Oslo. Dhaka. New Orleans. Nairobi. In recent years, dozens of cities across the globe have been hit by large-scale catastrophes of every kind: natural disaster, geopolitical conflict, food shortages, disease and contagion, terrorist attacks. If you haven't been directly touched by one of these cataclysms yourself, in our interconnected world you are sure to have been affected in some way. They harm vulnerable individuals, destabilise communities and threaten organisations and even whole societies. We are at greater risk than ever from city-wide catastrophe, and as the severity and frequency of these disasters increase, we must become better at preparing for, responding to and recovering from them. Be it Haiti's dependence on humanitarian aid, the rebuilding effort after the Great Fire of Manhattan or the reason why more girls than boys drowned in Japan's 2011 tsunami, The Resilience Dividend combines vivid stories with practical insights (such as how to disaster-proof a building) and ground-breaking research to help build a radical future in which individuals, companies and entire societies face disaster by creating more dynamic, more resilient cities.

Children Of Katrina

Author : Alice Fothergill
ISBN : 9781477303917
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 75. 3 MB
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When children experience upheaval and trauma, adults often view them as either vulnerable and helpless or as resilient and able to easily “bounce back.” But the reality is far more complex for the children and youth whose lives are suddenly upended by disaster. How are children actually affected by catastrophic events and how do they cope with the damage and disruption? Children of Katrina offers one of the only long-term, multiyear studies of young people following disaster. Sociologists Alice Fothergill and Lori Peek spent seven years after Hurricane Katrina interviewing and observing several hundred children and their family members, friends, neighbors, teachers, and other caregivers. In this book, they focus intimately on seven children between the ages of three and eighteen, selected because they exemplify the varied experiences of the larger group. They find that children followed three different post-disaster trajectories—declining, finding equilibrium, and fluctuating—as they tried to regain stability. The children’s moving stories illuminate how a devastating disaster affects individual health and well-being, family situations, housing and neighborhood contexts, schooling, peer relationships, and extracurricular activities. This work also demonstrates how outcomes were often worse for children who were vulnerable and living in crisis before the storm. Fothergill and Peek clarify what kinds of assistance children need during emergency response and recovery periods, as well as the individual, familial, social, and structural factors that aid or hinder children in getting that support.

The Power Of Resilience

Author : Yossi Sheffi
ISBN : 9780262330633
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 54. 86 MB
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A catastrophic earthquake is followed by a tsunami that inundates the coastline, and around the globe manufacturing comes to a standstill. State-of-the-art passenger jets are grounded because of a malfunctioning part. A strike halts shipments through a major port. A new digital device decimates the sales of other brands and sends established firms to the brink of bankruptcy. The interconnectedness of the global economy today means that unexpected events in one corner of the globe can ripple through the world's supply chain and affect customers everywhere. In this book, Yossi Sheffi shows why modern vulnerabilities call for innovative processes and tools for creating and embedding corporate resilience and risk management. Sheffi offers fascinating case studies that illustrate how companies have prepared for, coped with, and come out stronger following disruption -- from the actions of Intel after the 2011 Japanese tsunami to the disruption in the "money supply chain" caused by the 2008 financial crisis.Sheffi, author of the widely read The Resilient Enterprise, focuses here on deep tier risks as well as corporate responsibility, cybersecurity, long-term disruptions, business continuity planning, emergency operations centers, detection, and systemic disruptions. Supply chain risk management, Sheffi shows, is a balancing act between taking on the risks involved in new products, new markets, and new processes -- all crucial for growth -- and the resilience created by advanced risk management.

Introduction To Emergency Management

Author : Brenda D. Phillips
ISBN : 9781439830703
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 35. 62 MB
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The ultimate goal of every emergency management professional is to help citizens and communities prepare for natural, technological, or terrorist threats in order to mitigate damage and save lives. Providing an insider’s glimpse into this rewarding career, Introduction to Emergency Management engages readers in real-life case studies, integrating scientific findings with practitioner viewpoints to reveal the challenge of a field in service of communities and people at risk from disasters. An overview of the field Beginning with a history of emergency management, the book defines core concepts to help readers understand the field, explore the relevance and types of disaster research, and examine trends behind disasters and new and emerging hazards. From there, it goes on to outline various career tracks within emergency management with a focus on core competencies, ethical practice standards, certification issues, and the responsibilities of the emergency manager. Boxed features written by graduates of emergency management programs and expert practitioners from around the world provide real world insights. All stages of emergency management The book discusses in detail the various phases of the disaster cycle—including preparedness and planning, the response phase, short- and long-term recovery, and structural and non-structural mitigation. Core chapters conclude with guidance on working and volunteering in each of these phases. Final chapters explore the role of public and private sector partnerships and non-governmental organizations in emergency management. A concluding chapter offers guidance to students seeking careers and further study in the field. Case studies and learning tools Throughout the book, contributors from around the world offer their insight and experience on a host of disasters. Each chapter begins with learning objectives and includes discussion questions, references, and additional resources at the end of each chapter. Expert authors The writing team combines its collective experience of teaching and research in the field to offer classroom-tested content. Brenda D. Phillips has conducted research on disasters, specializing in social vulnerability, since 1982. David M. Neal, who has organized classes on the subject since 1979, brings the most extensive teaching experience on the topic to any existing text. Gary R. Webb, a well known disaster sociologist specializing in organizational response, has been involved in the field since 1994. Their collective years of experience bring authoritative expertise to this volume.

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